By Tom Bateman
BBC News, Jerusalem
At slightest 100 Palestinians person been killed successful the occupied West Bank and East Jerusalem this twelvemonth amid a monolithic summation successful Israeli subject raids, according to figures compiled by the BBC.
The fig was reached arsenic an 18-year-old antheral was changeable dormant successful East Jerusalem connected Saturday and aft a week which saw Israeli forces reportedly firing an anti-tank rocket astatine a location successful Jenin that killed a wanted gunman and 3 others.
It means this twelvemonth is present connected people to go the deadliest for Palestinians successful the West Bank since 2015.
The immense bulk were changeable dormant by Israeli information forces and respective by equipped Israeli civilians.
In a tiny fig of cases the root of gunfire - Israeli oregon Palestinian - is disputed, portion 1 antheral was changeable dormant during an apprehension raid carried retired by Palestinian information forces.
As quality rights groups explicit mounting alarm, the figures amusement astir a 5th of the Palestinians killed were children, the youngest of whom was 14.
Meanwhile the US this week called for an contiguous probe aft a 7-year-old lad died of evident bosom nonaccomplishment erstwhile the Israeli subject came to the household location aft his brothers were accused of throwing stones. The service says an archetypal enquiry recovered nary transportation betwixt its hunt and the boy's death.
The database of fatalities includes gunmen from militant groups, teenagers and young men changeable aft reportedly throwing stones oregon petrol bombs, unarmed civilians and bystanders, protesters and anti-settlement activists, and individuals carrying retired alleged weapon attacks oregon utilizing different weapons against Israeli soldiers oregon civilians.
Palestinian officials person accused Israel of carrying retired "field executions", portion the play besides saw the worst question of unit against Israelis successful years.
In the spring, a spate of deadly attacks by Arab Israelis and Palestinians killed 16 Israelis and 2 foreigners, aft which adjacent nightly service raids person taken spot successful the West Bank arsenic Israeli officials said they would aggressively antagonistic a increasing coercion threat.
Their gait has stoked fears of a overmuch wider flare-up, with the Israeli subject accused of routinely utilizing excessive unit and corporate punishment, portion information forces of the Western-backed Palestinian Authority (PA) person been losing their grip to equipped groups whose firepower has grown to levels unmatched successful years.
The raids often spark gunfights with young, newly-armed militants successful densely populated areas of Jenin and Nablus.
Israeli and Palestinian officials blasted each different for the information illness successful the bluish West Bank.
In a connection the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) said it utilized unrecorded occurrence erstwhile each different options were exhausted successful effect to "violent riots and acts of coercion daily".
It said: "In the lawsuit of the decease of a Palestinian arsenic a effect of IDF activity, a Military Police transgression probe is mostly launched to clarify the circumstances of the incident. However, successful incidents wherever the operations were of a existent combat nature, a transgression probe is not instantly launched."
In August, then-UN quality rights main Michelle Bachelet said galore cases appeared to interruption planetary instrumentality combined with "an astir full deficiency of accountability".
Our investigation of the Palestinian decease toll draws connected a scope of sources including the BBC's ain on-the-ground coverage, determination media reporting and authoritative statements cross-referenced with reports from non-governmental groups and UN agencies.
The youngest Palestinian killed successful the West Bank was 14-year-old Mohammad Salah, changeable by soldiers successful precocious February adjacent to Israel's separation obstruction southbound of Bethlehem.
The IDF alleged helium threw petrol bombs connected to a roadworthy but didn't accidental wherefore it utilized lethal unit to halt this. His household accidental helium wasn't adjacent to the roadworthy erstwhile helium was changeable dead.
The oldest fatalities were 2 80-year-old men successful abstracted incidents. One of them, Palestinian-American Omar Assad, died from a bosom onslaught aft being bound and gagged by troops during a colony hunt successful January.
The service aboriginal said it had suspended 2 officers from bid positions and passed the record to subject investigators.
By mid-March, 20 Palestinians had been killed, earlier this year's deadly question of unit that struck Israel's streets.
Those attacks were carried retired by Arab Israeli supporters of the Islamic State radical and by Palestinian gunmen mostly from the Jenin area.
The deadliest onslaught was claimed by the militant radical al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades portion each was praised by Hamas - the Palestinian militant radical that dominates the blockaded Gaza portion - and Islamic Jihad. All 3 are listed by Israel and the West arsenic violent organisations.
The Israeli subject past launched Operation Breakwater. Naftali Bennett, premier curate astatine the time, gave information forces "full freedom" to extremity the threats. "There are not and volition not beryllium limits for this war," helium said.
Of the 100 fatalities, astir were changeable dormant by Israeli forces during search, apprehension and punitive location demolition raids.
More than fractional the full fig person been successful Jenin and Nablus oregon surrounding villages successful the bluish West Bank.
Nearly a 3rd of each those killed were militant gunmen. In galore but not each cases Israeli soldiers changeable them during oregon aft reported exchanges of fire, though the IDF virtually ne'er gives accounts of what happens successful immoderate detail.
Across the West Bank, astatine slightest a 4th of the full fig of fatalities took spot erstwhile soldiers utilized unrecorded ammunition to occurrence astatine young men oregon teenagers successful groups it said had thrown stones, petrol bombs oregon improvised explosives.
In June the BBC witnessed the aftermath of an service raid into Jenin, reportedly a weapons search, successful which gunmen from 3 militant groups were said to person pursued and fired astatine service jeeps, earlier an Israeli sniper connected a rooftop changeable them dormant successful their car.
Several young men besides suffered slug wounds aft seemingly throwing stones, portion crowds extracurricular the infirmary called for revenge.
It came amid a illness of information power by the PA, which has constricted powers to govern Palestinian cities.
We saw the maturation of weaponry successful Jenin exile camp, caller formations of militants - galore inactive conscionable teenagers - and a rejection of the ceremonial Palestinian enactment viewed arsenic corrupt and unwilling to support them.
Young gunmen backed by established equipped groups person fused into the Jenin Brigade, portion successful Nablus militants patrolling the Ottoman-era alleyways of the Old City dub themselves the Den of Lions.
In the summertime Israeli forces targeted the group's 19-year-old person Ibrahim al-Nabulsi, oregon the Lion of Nablus, arsenic helium was known from his TikTok videos - arsenic portion of a inclination for specified footage to spell viral among Palestinians.
Early connected 9 August soldiers raided the metropolis successful unmarked vans, surrounded his harmless location and fired enarthrosis launched missiles astatine it, sidesplitting him and different gunman.
Israel wanted al-Nabulsi for a spate of shooting attempts against Israelis astir Nablus. Another 2 Palestinians, including a 16-year-old boy, were besides changeable dormant during the raid successful unclear circumstances.
The building's ruins person go a shrine, wherever different gunmen vow to combat on.
But this is an "uneven battle", according to Amos Harel, defence expert for the Israeli paper Haaretz, fixed Israel's overwhelming subject superiority.
He says the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) did 2 things to effort to stem the menace of attacks: It flooded Israel's West Bank separation obstruction with troops, and readied battalions and commando units to raid Palestinian cities to transportation retired "preventative" arrests.
Mr Harel was embedded with Israeli forces connected a raid into Jenin exile campy successful March.
"You saw young radical connected motorcycles getting adjacent to the Israeli jeeps, sometimes 20 oregon 30 metres [65-100ft] down them, and conscionable shooting," helium told the BBC.
"This is antithetic [from the caller past]. These are radical who are consenting to combat and consenting to die."
'Life has changed a lot'
According to the figures, 19 Palestinian children person been killed successful the West Bank this year.
Most of the under-18s were changeable dormant by Israeli soldiers during subject search-and-arrest raids oregon anti-occupation protests.
One lad was killed portion carrying retired an alleged hammer onslaught connected a soldier.
The quality rights radical Defence for Children International (DCI) Palestine has said the decease toll indicates a "complete disregard for planetary norms" by the Israeli military.
In July, 16-year-old Amjad Nasr was changeable dormant successful the colony of Al Mughayyir, wherever tensions often erupt arsenic Israeli settlers person targeted adjacent onshore to physique amerciable outposts.
Palestinians and settlers confronted each other, some groups throwing stones, portion astatine slightest 1 of the settlers was equipped with a instrumentality gun.
Video of the infinitesimal Amjad was deed shows him starting to tally distant arsenic a gunshot is heard.
A worker tin beryllium seen adjacent though it's inactive not wide who fired the fatal slug - Amjad's household support it was 1 of the settlers.
Amjad's father, Nashaat Nasr, told the BBC helium had not received immoderate mentation from the service astir his son's death.
"Life has changed a batch without Amjad. He near schoolhouse to assistance maine arsenic I suffered from crab and underwent chemotherapy treatment. He utilized to assistance the family," helium said.
Asked astir the incidental astatine the clip the Israeli service said it was being "examined", and forwarded the BBC a video and photos of Palestinians connected a roadworthy attacking a passing Israeli car with stones. It didn't respond to questions astir however this was connected to the shooting of Amjad Nasr successful a antithetic determination portion helium was moving from information forces.
The IDF subsequently said a subject constabulary probe was nether mode into his death.
Meanwhile, the IDF's competence oregon willingness to analyse itself implicit fatal incidents has been progressively taxable to question this year.
After the sidesplitting successful Jenin of the Palestinian-American writer Shireen Abu Akleh, Israeli officials gave misleading statements to the media, earlier a final interior probe falsely suggested a worker astir apt mistakenly changeable her due to the fact that helium was being fired astatine by militants from her determination astatine the time.
The IDF routinely says it acts to support its civilians and soldiers from "violent riots" during raids oregon protests, portion officials support its rules of engagement allowing for the usage of unrecorded fire.
Two years ago, a 21-year-old Israeli worker was killed erstwhile a ample stone was thrown astatine him from a rooftop during an apprehension raid adjacent Jenin.
This year, 2 members of Israel's information forces person been killed successful the escalating unit successful the West Bank.
One of them, Maj Bar Falah, was changeable dormant successful September adjacent the separation obstruction successful a reported gunfight with 2 Palestinian militants who were besides killed.
The IDF says the fig of weapon attacks by Palestinians targeting civilians and the subject successful the West Bank has risen three-fold compared with past year. It enactment the fig astatine 170 by mid-September.
Israeli officials besides briefed reporters that Operation Breakwater had prevented 550 abstracted attacks successful the past 2 months, but did not supply further details.
In astatine slightest 8 cases this twelvemonth Palestinians were killed during attempted oregon alleged attacks against Israeli soldiers oregon settlers successful the West Bank.
On 31 March, an Israeli autobus rider was stabbed with a screwdriver adjacent the colony of Efrat, leaving him severely wounded. Another Israeli civilian onboard changeable dormant the alleged attacker, 30-year-old Palestinian Nidal Jaafra.
Meanwhile the predominant IDF raids person seen much than 1,500 Palestinians arrested since April.
Aseel AlBajeh, an advocacy serviceman with the Palestinian quality rights radical Al-Haq, describes the wide interaction of Israel's cognition arsenic "collective punishment connected the full region", citing further restrictions connected movement, the closure of subject checkpoints to Israel, denial of enactment permits and detentions without proceedings that person accompanied it.
Many Palestinian families person been waiting for a wide mentation astir loved ones' deaths.
A 47-year-old widow, Ghada Sabatien, was changeable dormant by an Israeli worker astatine adjacent scope aft the IDF says she "ignored orders to halt". It happened connected 10 April successful the colony of Husan adjacent Bethlehem.
She was unarmed and a consequent study by the UN's humanitarian affairs bureau said she was visually impaired. The IDF said afterwards it had opened an probe into her death.
Human rights groups accidental they volition question to adhd galore of this year's cases to a existent probe by the International Criminal Court into imaginable warfare crimes by Israel and Palestinian equipped groups.
In August, 49 Palestinians were besides killed successful the Gaza Strip during a subject escalation betwixt Israel and Islamic Jihad.
The database of 100 fatalities does not see Palestinians who were killed this twelvemonth portion carrying retired the attacks wrong Israel.