By BBC News Arabic
Both sides successful Sudan's struggle could beryllium carrying retired warfare crimes connected aesculapian facilities and staff, according to grounds seen by BBC News Arabic.
Hospitals person been deed by airstrikes and artillery occurrence portion patients were inactive successful the gathering and doctors person besides been singled retired for onslaught - each of which are imaginable warfare crimes.
Only a fistful of the 88 hospitals successful the capital, Khartoum, stay unfastened aft weeks of fighting, according to Sudan's Doctors Union.
The BBC squad utilized outer information and mapping tools, analysed user-generated contented connected a immense scale, and spoke to dozens of doctors, to physique a representation of however hospitals and clinics are being affected.
The World Health Organization (WHO) called the attacks "a flagrant usurpation of planetary humanitarian law" adding that they "must halt now".
The warring successful Sudan began connected 15 April and was triggered by a powerfulness conflict betwixt erstwhile allies - the leaders of the regular service and the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF).
Khartoum's Ibn Sina infirmary is 1 of a fig the BBC has identified arsenic having been targeted successful an airstrike oregon by artillery occurrence erstwhile medics were treating civilian patients.
Dr Alaa is simply a surgeon astatine the infirmary and was contiguous erstwhile the onslaught happened connected 19 April.
"There wasn't immoderate warning. Ibn Sina infirmary wherever I worked was deed by 3 bombs, portion a 4th weaponry deed the nurses' location which was wholly acceptable connected fire," helium said.
Christian de Vos, an planetary transgression instrumentality adept with NGO Physicians for Human Rights, says this could beryllium classed arsenic a warfare crime.
"The work to pass of immoderate impending airstrike to ensure... that each civilians are capable to evacuate a infirmary anterior to an airstrike - that is precise wide nether the laws of war," helium said.
Looking astatine the images of the attack, forensic weapons adept Chris Cobb-Smith said it could person been caused by artillery fire.
Uncertainty implicit the benignant of limb utilized means it is hard to beryllium definite which broadside was responsible, oregon whether this was a targeted attack.
Another aesculapian installation deed was the East Nile infirmary - 1 of the past operating successful that portion of the capital.
The BBC has seen grounds of RSF fighters surrounding it with their vehicles and anti-aircraft weapons.
There person been reports of patients being forcibly evacuated from the building. But we person besides spoken to witnesses who accidental civilians continued to beryllium treated alongside the RSF soldiers.
On 1 May, a nationalist country adjacent to the East Nile infirmary was deed by a Sudanese service airstrike. There was nary warning, according to sources the BBC has spoken to.
Five civilians died successful that attack.
There was a further airstrike 2 weeks aboriginal but determination has been nary autarkic confirmation of the fig of injured.
The WHO has reported that 9 hospitals person been taken implicit by fighters from 1 broadside oregon the other.
"The preferential attraction of soldiers implicit civilians [is] not an due usage of a aesculapian installation and it whitethorn good represent a usurpation of the laws of war," Mr De Vos said.
A governmental advisor to the RSF, Mostafa Mohamed Ibrahim, denied that they were preventing the attraction of civilians. He told the BBC: "Our forces are conscionable spreading… they are not occupying and don't halt civilians from being treated successful these hospitals."
The Sudanese service did not supply a effect to this investigation's findings.
There is besides grounds of different imaginable warfare transgression - the targeting of doctors.
The BBC has seen societal media messages threatening doctors by name, adjacent sharing their ID number. The messages impeach them of supporting the RSF and receiving wealth from abroad.
In a wide circulated video, Major-General Tarek al-Hadi Kejab from the Sudanese service said: "The alleged cardinal committee of doctors, should beryllium named the committee of rebels!"
Sudanese doctors' organisations person been monitoring threats which they accidental are coming from some sides and the BBC has spoken to doctors who person gone into hiding.
"We cognize that this is simply a maneuver that is utilized successful wars, for pressure, that is amerciable successful each planetary laws. Unfortunately, this has pushed aesculapian unit into a propaganda warfare - betwixt the RSF and the Sudanese army," said Dr Mohamed Eisa from the Sudanese American Physicians Association.
Doctors astir the satellite person been calling for an extremity to the targeting of their colleagues.
At a league successful London past week, Sudan's Doctors for Human Rights said aesculapian unit had been killed, ambulances targeted and hospitals forced to adjacent their doors.
Dr Ahmed Abbas said: "We're gathering each the grounds of these transgressions, which are crimes against humanity and warfare crimes, and this could beryllium presented to planetary judicial authorities, oregon nationalist authorities successful Sudan."
Reporting by Lara al-Gibly, Vanessa Bowles, Mamdouh Akbiek, Ahmed ElShamy and Nawal al-Maghafi